Advances in Immunology & Vaccine Technology
A vaccine is an inactivated form of bacteria or virus that is injected into the body to simulate an actual infection. Because the injected microorganisms are 'dead,' they don't cause a person to become sick. Instead, vaccines stimulate an immune response by the body that will fight off that type of illness. It covers infectious disease targets and non-infectious disease targets. To generate vaccine-mediated protection is a complex challenge. Currently available vaccines have largely been developed empirically, with little or no understanding on how they activate the immune system. Their early protective efficacy is primarily conferred by the induction of antigen-specific antibodies. However, there is more to antibody-mediated protection than the peak of vaccine-induced antibody titers.
Vaccine Development is an activity that focuses on a variety of technological initiatives and applied research, which enhance and promote improved systems and practices for vaccine safety. In the past year, the unprecedented Ebola disease outbreak galvanized research and industry response and as we continue to search for solutions, we must review the lessons learned in order to overcome the current challenges. Vaccines development is a long, complex process, often lasting 10-15 years and involving a combination of public and private involvement. The current system for developing, testing, and regulating vaccines developed during the 20th century as the groups involved standardized their procedures and regulations.
Next-Generation Vaccine Delivery Technologies
Drug delivery systems are engineered technologies for the targeted delivery and/or controlled release of therapeutic agents. Drugs have long been used to improve health and extend lives. The practice of drug delivery has changed dramatically in the last few decades and even greater changes are anticipated in the near future. Biomedical engineers have not only contributed substantially to our understanding of the physiological barriers to efficient drug delivery—such as transport in the circulatory system and drug movement through cells and tissues—they have contributed to the development of a number of new modes of drug delivery that have entered clinical practice. Role of vaccine delivery technologies includes rational development of vaccines, achieving immunization goals, supporting best clinical practice.
Vaccines continue to revolutionize our ability to prevent disease and improve health. With every technological advance, we are able to extend the benefits of vaccines to more people and provide better protection from life-threatening infectious diseases.
An AIDS vaccine does not yet exist, but efforts to develop a vaccine against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, have been underway for many years. An HIV vaccine could be effective in either of two ways. A “preventive” vaccine would stop HIV infection occurring altogether, whereas a “therapeutic” vaccine would not stop infection, but would prevent or delay illness in people who do become infected, and might also reduce the risk of them transmitting the virus to other people. Although a preventive vaccine would be ideal, therapeutic vaccines would also be highly beneficial. The basic idea behind all HIV vaccines is to encourage the human immune system to fight HIV.
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Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination