Bacterial Exotoxins: how bacteria fight the immune system


Journal of Clinical Toxicology (JCT) is Scholarly Open Access journal that deals with the study of xenobiotics and alsostudy toxic effects of agents (drugs) whose purpose is to ameliorate or prevent a disease. The journal addresses both scientific research and clinical advances in clinical toxicology. This free clinical journal provides an open access platform for researcher’s work in clinical toxicology in hospitals, academia, government or industrial sectors.

This Scientific journal includes a wide range of fields in its discipline to create a platform for the authors to make their contribution towards the journal and the editorial office promises a peer review process for the submitted manuscripts for the quality of publishing. The journal is using Editorial Tracking System for quality peer-review process. Editorial Tracking is an online manuscript submission, review and Managing systems. Review processing is performed by the editorial board members of Journal of Clinical Toxicology or outside experts; at least two independent reviewers approval followed by editor approval is required for acceptance of any citable manuscript. Journal of Clinical Toxicology aims to publish most complete and reliable source of information on the discoveries and current developments in the mode of original articles, review articles, case reports, short communications, etc. in all areas of the field and making them freely available through online without any restrictions or any other subscriptions to researchers worldwide.Excellent contributions are welcome to receive high impact factor for this scholarly journal.

Bacterial pathogenicity factors are functionally diverse. They may facilitate the adhesion and colonization of bacteria, influence the host immune response, assist spreading of the bacterium by e.g. evading recognition by immune cells, or allow bacteria to dwell within protected niches inside the eukaryotic cell. Two types of toxins have been recognized: (1) endotoxins that are integral parts of the bacterium, and (2) exotoxins that are secreted virulence factors. Exotoxins will be the focus of this research topic.


Exotoxins can be single polypeptides or heteromeric protein complexes that act on different parts of the cells. At the cell surface, they may insert into the membrane to cause damage; bind to receptors to initiate their uptake; or facilitate the interaction with other cell types. For example, bacterial superantigens specifically bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II molecules on the surface of antigen presenting cells and the T cell receptor, while cytolysins cause pore formation. For intracellular activity, exotoxins need to be translocated across the eukaryotic membrane. Gram-negative bacteria can directly inject effector proteins in a receptor-independent manner by use of specialized needle apparatus such as bacterial type II, III, or type IV secretion systems. Other methods of translocation include the phagocytic uptake of bacteria followed by toxin secretion, or receptor-mediated endocytosis which allows the targeting of distinct cell types. Receptor-based uptake is initiated by the binding of heteromeric toxin complexes to cell surface and completed by the translocation of the effector protein(s) across the endosomal membrane. In the cytosol, toxins interact with specific eukaryotic target proteins to cause post-translational modifications that often result in the manipulation of cellular signalling cascades and inflammatory responses.


It has become evident that the actions of some bacterial toxins may exceed their originally assumed cytotoxic function. For example, pore-forming toxins do not only cause cytolysis, but may also induce autophagy, pyroptosis, or activation of the MAPK pathways, resulting in adjustment of the host immune response to infection and modification of inflammatory responses both locally and systemically. Other recently elucidated examples of the immunomodulatory function of cell death-inducing exotoxins include TcdB of Clostridium difficile which activates the inflammasome through modification of cellular Rho GTPases, or the Staphyloccocus δ-toxin which activates mast cells.


The goal of this research topic is to gather current knowledge on the interaction of bacterial exotoxins and effector proteins with the host immune system and to describe mechanisms of immune modification and evasion. We welcome the contribution of original research articles as well as state-of-the-art reviews.

Media contact:

Larry Tyler

Managing Editor

Journal of Clinical Toxicology


Whatsapp: +1-504-608-2390