Development of vaccines for novel severe acute respiratory disease: (Covid-19)
The current threat of avian influenza to the human population, the potential for the re-emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated corona virus, and the identification of multiple novel respiratory viruses underline the need for the event of therapeutic and preventive strategies to combat virus infection. Vaccine development may be a key component within the prevention of widespread virus infection and within the reduction of morbidity and mortality related to many viral infections. In this part, corona virus vaccine, especially SARS-CoV vaccines are mainly discussed.
Corona virus vaccines can be inactivated corona virus, live attenuated corona virus, or S protein-based. Besides, there are still vectored vaccines, DNA vaccines, and combination vaccines against corona viruses. Vaccines targeting several animal CoVs are developed, and a few are demonstrated to be efficacious in preventing virus infection. However, a phenomenon of enhanced disease following vaccination has been observed in cats upon infection with feline infectious peritonitis virus following previous infection, vaccination, or passive transfer of antibody. The phenomenon isn't fully understood but is believed to be a results of enhanced uptake and spread of the virus through binding of virus-antibody immune complexes to Fc receptors on the surfaces of macrophages; low-titter (sub neutralizing) antibodies directed against the S protein are mainly responsible. Although antibody enhancement appears to be limited to feline infectious peritonitis virus among CoVs, similar concerns are raised with reference to SARS-CoV. Previously infected mice and hamsters are shielded from subsequent infection with SARS-CoV within the absence of enhanced disease, and vaccine studies and passive immunoprophylaxis performed with mice and hamsters suggest that previous exposure and the presence of NAbs provide protection.
The virus that causes COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through droplets generated when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or exhales. These droplets are too heavy to hang in the air, and quickly fall on floors or surfaces.
You can be infected by breathing in the virus if you are within close proximity of someone who has COVID-19, or by touching a contaminated surface and then your eyes, nose or mouth.
The immunogenicity and efficacy of inactivated SARS-CoV vaccines are established in experimental animals, and one such vaccine is being evaluated during a clinical test . However, the development of inactivated vaccines requires the propagation of high titters of infectious virus, which in the case of SARS-CoV requires bio safety level 3-enhanced precautions and is a safety concern for production. Additionally, incomplete inactivation of the vaccine virus presents a possible public health threat. Production workers are in danger for infection during handling of concentrated live SARS-CoV, incomplete virus inactivationmay cause SARS outbreaks among the vaccinated populations, and a few viral proteins may induce harmful immune or inflammatory responses, even causing SARS-like diseases
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Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination