New innovations in the field of vaccines and immunization
Vaccines play a vital role in the healthcare department especially for a growing children. A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. Totally 26 Vaccines are available authorized by the WHO. Different Vaccines are Measles vaccines, Rubella vaccines, Cholera vaccines, Meningococcal disease vaccines, Influenza vaccines, Diphtheria vaccines, Mumps vaccines, Tetanus vaccines, Hepatitis A vaccines, Pertussis vaccines, Tuberculosis vaccines, Hepatitis B vaccines, Pneumoccocal disease vaccines, Typhoid fever vaccines, Hepatitis E vaccines, Poliomyelitis vaccines, Tick-borne encephalitis vaccines, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines, Rabies vaccines, Varicella and herpes zoster vaccines, Human papilloma-virus vaccines, Rotavirus gastroenteritis vaccines, Yellow fever vaccines, Japanese encephalitis vaccines, Malaria vaccines and Dengue fever vaccines. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. This Conference brings out the knowledge about Highlights of latest technologies and innovations in Vaccines and Immunization.
Cancer, Malaria & TB Vaccines
Malaria continues to claim an estimated 2 to 3 million lives annually and to account for untold morbidity in the approximately 300 to 500 million people infected annually. Malaria is considered a re-emerging disease, due largely to the spread of drug-resistant parasite strains, decay of health-care infrastructure and difficulties in implementing and maintaining vector control programs in many developing countries. Four species of protozoan parasites cause malaria in humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. P. falciparum is responsible for the majority of deaths and most of the severe forms of disease, including cerebral malaria. 2 billion people latently infected with M. tuberculosis 5-10% infected people progress to disease 9 million new TB cases each year 1.5 million TB deaths each year Equivalent to 20 passenger aircraft crashes each day. TB is transmitted by adults with cavitatory disease, HIV infected people carry greater burden of disease. Highest risk of progression from TB infection to active disease, and worst TB morbidity and mortality, compared to older children and adults.
The most important breakthroughs of the past century involved the development of vaccines to protect against viruses: smallpox, polio, hepatitis, human papillomavirus (HPV), and even chickenpox. But one virus remains elusive to those seeking to create a vaccine to guard against it: HIV. Getting vaccinated early, before sexual exposure, is also effective in preventing certain types of STIs. Vaccines are available to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
DNA & Synthetic Vaccines
Scientists take many approaches to designing vaccines against a microbe. These choices are typically based on fundamental information about the microbe, such as how it infects cells and how the immune system responds to it, as well as practical considerations, such as regions of the world where the vaccine would be used. A DNA vaccine against a microbe would evoke a strong antibody response to the free-floating antigen secreted by cells, and the vaccine also would stimulate a strong cellular response against the microbial antigens displayed on cell surfaces. The DNA vaccine couldn’t cause the disease because it wouldn’t contain the microbe, just copies of a few of its genes. In addition, DNA vaccines are relatively easy and inexpensive to design and produce. Inactivated vaccines can be composed of either whole viruses or bacteria, or fractions of either. Fractional vaccines are either protein-based or polysaccharide-based.
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Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination